BELLARY DISRICT PROFILE

INTRODUCTION TO DISTRICT PROFILE

Every one of us knows that Education is power that makes one to be creative, disciplined and confident. Education is an important aspect to develop human capabilities to lead the life meaningfully.Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) is the dream of our Nation .In this regard, Indian Constitution provides some rights to every human being through various constitutional provisions related to UEE.

a) CONSTITUTIONAL OBLIGATION

After Independence Indian Constitution presented state duties in respect to provision of education, which are included in the following articles, namely Article 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for children. "The state shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this constitution, for free and compulsory education for all the children until they complete the age of fourteen years".

Now the Aricle21-A, "Education is a fundamental right which recently incorporated in the constitution by the 93rd Constitutional Amendment in 2002, “the right to education for the people of the age group of 6-14.”

The National Policy on Education-1986, then 1992 (modified) states, that education of women should receive emphasis not only on the grounds of social justice but also to accelerate the social transformation. In the last decade new programs have been launched and focused on improving access, participation and achievement by children from marginalized groups, particularly girls, SCs and STs. The introduction of Minimum Levels of Learning and National Curriculum framework (2000) are the some key developments at the national level. The Karnataka Education Act (1983)has emphasized on the development educational institutional in the state.

Many Projects and programmes at the micro and macro levels, namely Operation Black Board, Total Literacy Campaign, DPEP and presently SSA have been undertaken in the past in this direction. SSA is an attempt to provide human capabilities to all the children through provision of community owned quality education in a mission mode. Under SSA focus is given to improve the life skills through new curriculum.

a) Historical Background:

The Bellary district has the regards as the center of political and cultural importance since medieval period. The district is world famous for the abundant and rich manganese ore. The physical structure of Bellary district is mixture of hilly area, dry as well as irrigated land. The Thungabadhra River is the main source of agricultural activities. One of the world famous heritage center “Hampi” was the capital of Vijaynagara Kingdom.


b) Geographic Features:

Bellary district has spread from Southwest to Northeast and is situated on the eastern side of Karnataka State. The district is situated between 140 30’ and 150 50’ north latitude and 750 40’ and 770 11’ east longitude. This district is surrounded by Raichur district on the North, by Haveri district on the west, Chitradurga and Davanagere districts on the South and Ananthpur and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh on the East. It comes under the administrative control of Gulburga division and development jurisdiction of Hyderabad Karnataka Development Programme (HKDP), Kalaburagi. The normal rainfall is 64 cm. The Important rivers of the district are Thungabudra and its tributaries, the Hagari and Chikka hagari.

As shown in table 1.1 the district consists of two revenue sub-divisions and 7 revenue (8 Education blocks) talukas. Bellary Sub-Division covers 3 taluks (Bellary, Sandur & Siruguppa) and Hospet Sub-Division covers (Hagari bommanahalli, Hospet, Huvinahadagali & Kudligi). There are 27 hoblies, 1 City Municipal Council, one City Corporation, one Town Municipality, seven town panchayats, 522 Revenue villages and 436 Thandas/Habitations. The total area under the forest in the district is 1517.19 sq. Km. This works out to be about 18.02% of the total area of the district.

Bellary Dist. Map with Village Boundaries

The district is characterized by dryness in the major part of the year; it has a hot summer. The district has a meteorological observatory at Bellary. The period from the later half of November is the coolest part of the year. The temperature begins to rise by the end of the February and by April it is hottest. The major ores that are deposited in Bellary district are copper, manganese, red-oxide of iron, galena, calcite, gypsum, asbestos, gold-corundum, white clay, soap stone, lime stone, building and decorative stones. The Sandur taluk has maximum deposit of ores (73.75%) and Hospet stands second in the district.

Table 1.1 Salient features

Geographical Area

8420 sq. Km.

No. of Habitations

1000

No. of Revenue Villages

522

No. of Grama panchayats

189

No. of Town panchayats

7

No. of Revenue Blocks

7

No. of Education Blocks

8

No. of Town Municipalities

1

No. of City Municipal Councils

1

No. of City Corporations

1

No. MLA Constituency

8

No. MP Constituency

1

Source: ZP, Bellary

c) Socio-Economic and Cultural Characteristics:

The major occupation of this district is agriculture and 75% of total labor force is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. As per 1991 census, the percentage of working population in the district was 43.0% (7.08 lakhs). Among these workers 33% are Agriculturists and 41% are agricultural labours, 6% are working in Mining and small-scale industries and the remaining 20% are self-employees. The annual per capita income in the district is Rs.9971/-, which is lower than the state per capita income, which is Rs.13294. The important crops grown are Cotton, Jowar, Groundnut, Paddy, Sunflower and Cereals. The net irrigated area is 37% to the net area sown.

Food habits: The staple food of the most of the people in the district is jowar The middle and upper class people use more rice than others. Ragi is ground into flour and made balls called 'Ragi Mudde'.

Dress: Elderly people wear dhoti in the form of katche. A shirt or angavastra is some time thrown over the shoulders. Women wear sari and kuppasa. Usual dress of girls consists of skirt and jacket or frock.

Ornaments: The passion for ornament is universal. Lightness and fineness of ornament is now preferred. Every big village has itsgoldsmith. Gold ornaments usually consists of earrings, nose studs necklaces bangles and rings etc.

Language: The following languages are spoken in the district. Kannada,Telugu, Tamil, Hindi, Malayalam, English etc. of which Kannada is the principal language. Most of the people use languages and dialects other than Kannada as their mother tongue.

d) Administrative Structure:

Deputy Commissioner and Chief Executive Officer of Zilla Panchayat (ZP) looks after the district administration. The Zilla Panchayat has a elected body represented by 36 ZP members, one of which will be chairman and one will be vice chairman. The ZP will have different sub committees like Health and Education, Agriculture, Social justice,Finance etc. Health and Education sub committee looks after the department of Education. Similarly at Taluk level Tahashildars and Taluk Panchayat Executive Officers (TPEO) looks after the administration of the taluk along with the elected body of taluk panchayat. In the district 189 Grama panchayats (GP) are established which look after the development of the villages comes under the jurisdiction. The GPs are also having an elected body headed by the Chairman. The term of all the elected bodies i.e ZP, TP and GP is 5 years.

e) Demographic Profile:

The total population of the District as per 2001 census is 20.27 lakhs with 10.29 lakhs males and 9.98 lakhs female. The sex ratio is 969 PER 1000 males as per 2001 census, which is slightly higher than the state average of 964.

Demographic information Bellary vis-ŕ-vis Karnataka

Subject

Bellary

Karnataka

1991

2001

1991

2001

Area in Sq. Km.

8426

8426

1,91,791

1,91,791

Total population (lakhs)

16.56

20.27

449.77

527.34

Males (lakhs)

8.42

10.29

229.52

268.56

Females (lakhs)

8.14

9.98

220.25

258.77

Urban population

4.32

7.07

139.08

179.19

Rural population

12.24

13.20

310.69

348.141

Decadal Growth Rate

26.84

22.30

21.12

17.25

Popn. Density (per Sq.Km.)

196

241

235

275

*Sex Ratio

966

969

960

964

0-6 population (%)

-

14.87

16.63

12.94

*(No. Of females per 1000 males) Source: Census 1991 and 2001.

The rural population constitutes 65.13% and the urban population is 34.87%. The density of population is 240 per sq. Km., which is much lower than the State average of 275 per sq. Km. The Decadal growth rate for 1991–2001 was 22.30%, which was higher than the State growth rate of 17.25%. . The infant mortality rate among female is 73 per 1000 and is 84 per 1000 in case of male.

Table 1.3:Block wise Demographic Information

Block Name

Area in Sq. Km.

Total Popn.

Urban Popn.

Rural Popn.

Sex Ratio

Popn. Density

Bellary

1689

625494

316766

308728

961

370

Hadagali

948

168118

23414

144704

977

177

H.B.Halli

947

159886

0

159886

980

169

Hospet

934

374949

221450

153499

977

401

Kudligi

1602

272183

44550

227633

955

170

Sandur

1258

191166

34168

156998

945

152

Siruguppa

1048

235344

66502

168842

999

226

Total

8426

2027140

706850

1320290

969

241

Source: Census 2001

The table 1.4 shows the block wise population details. The SC population constitutes 18.5 % and ST 18.0% of the total population in the district. The 30.9% of the total population are at Bellary taluk, which is highest and the lowest in H.B.Halli taluk (8.3%) in the district.

Table 1.4: Block wise population of the district -2001

Block

Name

Population

SC

ST

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Bellary

319008

306486

625494

51141

49910

101051

51619

50342

101961

Hadagali

85051

83067

168118

18926

18692

37618

6605

6469

13074

H.B.Halli

80770

79116

159886

15068

14873

29941

10924

10792

21716

Hospet

189674

185275

374949

38043

37737

75780

29952

30539

60491

Kudligi

139202

132981

272183

26540

25672

52212

37298

36352

73650

Sandur

98278

92888

191166

16213

15892

32105

26314

25423

51737

Sirguppa

117731

117613

235344

22605

22906

45511

20950

21059

42009

Total

1029714

997426

2027140

188536

185682

374218

183662

180976

364638

Source: Census 2001

The predominant SCs are Adidravida, Adikarnataka, Holeya, Madiga, Bovi, Vodda, Lambanis and STs are Valmiki, Nayaka/Beda, Most of the Tribes, however speak Kannada.

f) Literacy Scenario:

Literacy in general, plays a vital role in the overall development of any society. The literacy rate as per 1996 estimates was 51% in this district as compared to State literacy rate of 63%. The total Literacy Campaign (TLC) and DPEP had been launched in this district during 1993. 4.11 lakhs illiterates were identified in the erstwhile Bellary district in the age group of 9 – 35 years. The internal and external evaluation studies revealed 52% success rate and recommended for Post Literacy Campaign (PLC) and SSA. The P.L.C. and ‘Kannada Nadu Sakshara Nadu’ programmes have also come to an end and at present Continuing Education Center (CEC) are functioning and the vertical expansion is being in progress.

Table 1.5: Literacy Rate:

Literacy Rate

1991

2001

Male

Fem.

Total

Gender Gap

Male

Fem.

Total

Gender Gap

National

64.13

39.29

52.21

24.84

75.85

54.16

65.38

21.69

State

67.26

44.34

56.04

22.92

76.29

57.45

67.04

18.84

District

47.01

25.04

36.02

21.97

68.76

45.01

57.04

23.75

Source: Census 1991, 2001

Compared to 1991 census, the Female Literacy Rate is increased by 19.97% in 2001 census. The Male Literacy Rate is increased by 21.75%. There is overall 20.84% increase in the literacy rate of the district.

Table 1.6: Block wise Literacy Rate:

Sl. No

Blocks

2001 (Total)

2001 (RURAL)

Total

Male

Female

Gender gap

Total

Male

Female

Gender gap

1

Bellary

60.64

71.86

49.04

22.82

45.67

59.73

31.48

28.25

2

Hadagali

60.43

71.68

48.89

22.79

59.01

70.84

46.92

25.20

3

H.B.Halli

58.58

71.25

45.74

25.51

58.58

71.25

45.74

25.51

4

Hospet

61.29

71.68

50.67

21.01

47.21

59.65

34.69

24.96

5

Kudligi

60.42

72.58

47.67

24.91

58.29

71.14

44.84

26.30

6

Sandur

53.76

64.66

42.24

22.42

48.98

61.99

35.32

26.67

7

Siruguppa

44.14

57.58

30.83

26.75

40.85

54.99

26.91

28.08

District

57.04

68.76

45.01

23.75

51.23

64.23

37.99

26.24

Source: Census 2001

As per the 2001 Census data, the rural literacy rate in 7 blocks is shown in the above table. Except Hadagali block where literacy rate is 46.92 which is above the national average (46.7), all other blocks have been considered as Educationally Backward Blocks (EBB) where additional interventions in regard to girls education are recommended for effective implementation.