BIDAR DISTRICT PROFILE

INTRODUCTION

In North-East Karnataka, region, Bidar is one of the districts which continues to be backward compared to the other areas of the State, in spite of, several developmental efforts of the Governments, PRI’s and external agencies.

According to Human Development Report of Karnataka 1999, Bidar district stood at the 18th rank in Karnataka both in human development and gender development among the 29 districts. At the National level, the rank of the district was 138 and it is among the five districts at the bottom in Karnataka in HDI ranking. According to National Population Commission Report brought out in 2001 census, Bidar district lags very much behind in Key social and demographic indicators. The economic backwardness of the district due to various reasons is very well recognized. Regional imbalances have been a persistent concern in most of the states. Emphasis changed in the early nineties to measuring the people’s welfare human development index as applicable to both developed and developing economies. These measures put welfare, basic health and education and other vital infrastructure development in addition to income on the pedestal.

2.1 DISTRICT BACKGROUND

Bidar is one of the 29 Districts of Karnataka which resembles the crown of the state occupying its north-eastern tip. This small district possess its own glorious historical past dating back to many centuries. It was ruled by the Mauryas, Satavahnas, Rashtrakutas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Khiljis, Bahmanis, Baridshahis, Mughals and the Nizams of Hyderabad. The treasure of culture, Arts and architecture nurtured by successive rulers contributed to its richness. The Shivsharnas of the 12th century ushered in unprecedented and lasting revolution in the social, literary and religious fields in this area. Bidar was the capital of many empires and symbolizes the confluence of various cultures and races.

2.1.1 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND

Bidar district is a small but complex district of Karnataka with a unique history and Culture. Prior to independence it was part of the erstwhile Nizam state and later became the part of Mysore, now renamed Karnataka.

The District has a glorious history. It was the nucleus of some important dynasties, which held way in the ancient and medieval period and witnessed several upheavals. The important dynasties were the Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Kakatiyas, Kalachuryas, and the Bahamanis. In the 12th century, it was the immediate scene of the rise of the Sharana (Veerashaiva) movement led by Basaveshwara, Allma Prabhu and others, which brought about a new epoch with far reaching consequences in social, religious, literary, cultural and economic fields.

Later during the reign of Bahamani Kings, their minister-in-Chief Mahmood Gawan gave a tremendous boost to education by establishing a collage called Madarsa-e-Mahmud Gawan; The building of the college can still be seen in Bidar town. There are interesting versions on how the district derives its name. The name of the place appears to be derived from the word Bidaru which is the local name for bamboo, which was known to have grown in plenty in the district in earlier times. The district was earlier called Vidhur nagar. According to another version the term Bidar is derived from the famous Bidri work prevalent in the district since a long time.

2.1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

Bidar is located in the northern most part of Karnataka. It borders Maharashtra in the Northwest and Andhra Pradesh in the Northeast. Its exact location is between 17.35 and 18.25 degrees north latitude and between 76.42 and 77.39 degrees East longitude. The district is 2330 feet above the sea level and has a moderate climate throughout the year.

Table 1 Block-wise general information

Sl No

Block

Popn.

Hobblies

Inhabited villages

Uninhabited villages

Towns

1

Aurad

246721

6

264

0

0

2

B.Kalyan

299521

6

199

1

1

3

Bhalki

257020

6

168

2

1

4

Bidar

404917

6

147

8

1

5

H’Bad

294817

6

122

3

2

Total

District

1502996

30

900

14

5

Source: Census 2001

Climate

The climate of the district is characterized by general dryness throughout the year till the middle of February except when it is followed by the south west monsoon season which continues till the end of September. The month of October and November constitute the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. The cold season is from December to the middle of February, the average annual rainfall at Bidar is 907.5mm. The Manjara and the Karanja rivers are famous in the district.

2.1.3 SOCIO ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

About 80 % of the population of the district is Hindus, 14% are Muslims, 2 % Christians, 3% are Buddhists and remaining are Sikhs and Jains. In view of the fact that the district borders Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, the people of district generally speak Urdu, Telgu and Marathi in addition to Kannada which is the mother tongue for majority of the population

Communications

The following are the important roads in the district Hyderabad Sholapur-Pune road which is the national high way No.9 connects Pune-Hyderabad Zahirabad-Nanded road which is a state highway. It passes through Bidar town and leaves the district near Kamalnagar. Srirangapatna to Bidar Road passes through the district for a distance of 60 kms. There are also eleven major district roads, twenty-two other district roads and over forty village roads in the district Bidar. The head quarters town is connected by road with Bangalore via Kalaburagi and also connected by road, rail and air with Hyderabad. A broad guage line passes through the district, there are seven railway stations in the district, including Bidar

Income and Occupational Pattern

Per capita income in the District is the lowest in the state at current prices. At constant prices it is a little better at current prices (1991-92) the per capita income was RS. 2725 and at constant prices (1980-81) it is Rs. 1461. The 2001 census states that there are 467000 main workers and 34000 marginal workers. However, 755000 have been noted as non-workers. This means that for every one employed person there were over 15 people unemployed according to the official registers. This fact together with the low per capita income pushes down Bidar to the bottom rung of the ladder in terms of backwardness.

Agriculture is the occupation for 70% of its people. Land is fertile. The district gets moderate rainfall between 875-925 mm. Tur, black gram (urad), green gram, and sugarcane are the main crops in Kharif, and Jowar, and sunflower are the principal crops in Rabi.

The Bidari artisans of the District are famous all over the world. Pottery, carpentry, black-smithy, and gold smithy are the traditional occupations of the district. There have been some efforts at industrialization since 1981.

SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN BIDAR

DISTRICT IMPLENTATION COMMITTEE

1

District in charge Minister

Hon’ble President

2

President Z.P. Bidar

Member President

3

Deputy Commissioner, Bidar

Member

4

Chief Executive Officer, Z.P. Bidar

Executive Chairman

5

Chairman Health and Education standing committee, Z.P. Bidar

Member

6

President, City Municipality, Bidar

Member

7

2 members from Health and Education standing committee, Z.P. Bidar

Member

8

President, Taluk Panchayath, Bidar

Member

9

Secretary – District Literacy Committee, Bidar

Member

10

4 NGOs

Member

11

District Primary Schools Teachers Association, Bidar

Member

12

HMs/Principals of Schools Teachers Associations, Bidar

Member

13

Selected SDMC presidents

Member

14

Principal, DIET

Member

15

District Adult Education Officer, Bidar

Member

16

District Health Offices, Bidar

Member

17

Assistant Director, Women & Child Development Department, Bidar

Member

18

District Social Welfare Officer, Social Welfare Department Bidar

Member

19

DDPI, Bidar

Member Secretary

20

Deputy Project Co-coordinator, SSA, Bidar

Member

Along with this team of experts there is a District Resource Group consisting of the DDPI, Principal of DIET, Deputy Project Co-coordinator, SSA, all BEOs, BRCs, NGOs and others.

E) DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE

1991

2001

TOTAL POPULATION

1255799

1502996

MALE

643192

812301

FEMALE

612607

730695

SC

260033

298812

ST

104215

182219

GROWTH RATE

26.12

19.55

Source: Census 2001 Population

Area and Population

Table 3: Block-wise area and population profile of the Bidar district

Sl.No

Particulars

Aurad

B.Kalyan

Bhalki

Bidar

H'bad

Total

1

Area (sq.km)

1224

1206

1117

926

985

5458

2

Pop (T)

246721

299521

257020

404917

294817

1502996

3

Pop (M)

133533

160774

140112

217094

160788

812301

4

Pop (F)

119563

146747

124908

195823

143654

730695

5

Pop®

228910

240779

221918

231239

234074

1156920

6

Pop (U)

16189

58742

35102

173678

60743

344454

7

Density (sq.kms)

200

248

230

437

299

275

8

Decadal growth rate

16.69

21.58

15.29

22.16

20.30

19.55

Source: Statistic office

Block

All

SC

% of Tot.Pop.

ST

% of tot. pop

D.G.R

Sex ratio

M

F

T

M

F

T

M

F

T

Aurad

133533

119563

246721

33136

31095

64231

26.19

11105

10487

21592

8.8

16.69

951

B'Kalyan

160774

146747

299521

30230

28773

59003

19.67

25224

24048

49272

16.43

21.58

960

Bhalki

140112

124908

257020

28335

27090

55425

21.56

11554

10899

22453

8.74

15.29

947

Bidar

217094

195823

404917

31532

29440

60972

15.03

21719

20801

42520

10.48

22.16

938

Humbad

160788

143654

294817

30416

28765

59181

20.09

23853

22529

46382

15.74

20.3

950

District

812301

730695

1502996

153649

145163

298812

19.89

93455

88764

182219

12.13

19.55

949

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4 : BLOCK WISE POPULATION INFORMATION

Source : Census 2001

Note: D.G.R – Decimal growth rate

F) LITREACY SCENARIO

Bidar is an educationally backward district. Literacy rate of the district according to 2001 census is 61.98. The different programmes launched by state and central governments have significant impact during the last 10 years which result an increase in the literacy rate by 16.87%. Following table 1 gives a comparative picture of literacy at the national, state and district level.

Table -1 Literacy rate at National, State & District Level

Literacy Level

1991

2001

National

53.00

65.00

State

53.00

67.04

District

45.11

61.98

Source: 1991 and 2001 census

Table – 2 Literacy rate at District, Rural & Urban level

Male

Female

Total

District

73.29

50.01

61.98

Rural

69.95

44.88

57.72

Urban

84.23

67.42

76.18

Source: Census 2001

The above tables reveal that the literacy rate of the district is less by 6% when compared with that of state level literacy rate. The literacy rate has been increased by 16% when compared to 1991 census. The female literacy has been increased significantly by 15% which is due to Total literacy campaign and various programmes initiated by the department of public instruction The literacy rate of the district is 61.98, out of which male is 73.29 and female 50.01. District rural Literacy rate is 57.72 with male 69.95 and female 44.88 Urban 76.18 with male 84.23 Female-67.42. The above figure shows that the literacy rate in respect to female for urban areas is high compared to overall female which is shown in table 2.This shows that awareness of education is more in urban areas.

Table -3 Literacy Performance

Sl.No

Blocks

1971

1981

1991

2001

1

Aurad

17.00

22.46

39.5

60.23

2

Bkalyan

17.49

24.87

42.95

59.90

3

Bhalki

17.92

25.42

46.47

63.45

4

Bidar

24.93

32.01

50.96

65.42

5

Humnabad

19.51

25.45

42.87

59.46

DISTRICT

20.02

26.44

45.11

61.98

Source: Census 71, 81, 91 and 2001

The above figures in table 3 reveal that the district literacy has been improved compare to previous decades. The detailed block wise literacy rates are shown in the above table.