KOPPAL DISTRICT PROFILE

DISTRICT BACKGROUND

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The ruins and remains of the days of Paleolithic period are found in Koppal. The Rock paintings, Remains of dwellings and antiquities of Neolithic and Megalithic cultures are traced in Koppal. Two inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka- Shri Gavimatha Inscription and Palaki gundu Inscription are found in Koppal. Ranna – the eminent Kannada poet praised the serenity and sanctity of Koppal. The inscriptions of ‘Shravanabelagola’ praise ‘Kopana’ as the jolliest place. There are more than 100 temples in Kanakagiri and among them 'Lakshmi-Narasimha’ temple and ‘Kanakaraya temple’ deserve special mention and appreciation. Shri Trillingeshwara temple in Mudhol and Shri Balleshwara temple in Balageri are examples of outstanding skill and sculpture. The ruins and remains of the days of Paleolithic period are found in Koppal. The Rock paintings, Remains of dwellings and antiquities of Neolithic and Megalithic cultures are traced in Koppal.

Koppal town being the head quarters of district is known for its historical glory and literary personalities. The other important places of the district are Bhagya nagar, Kinnal, Itagi, Hulagi, Kukanoor, Kalloor, Gangavati, Kanakagiri, Anegundi, Gudadur, and Munirabad. Bhagya nagar is known for weaving and many people are engaged in the work of preparing raw material to prepare wigs and exports to the other countries, i.e., Switzerland etc,. Kinnal is known for its Traditional art in handicrafts-Toy making, Chowkis, Fruit plates etc., and Itagi is well known for Mahadeva. Hulagi is famous for Huligemmadevi temple, which is situated on bank of river Tungabhadra. As many as 50 rice polishing mills are situated in and around the Gangavathi town. Anegundi once known as Kishkindha is one of the important place, which is cited in the great epic ‘Ramayana’. And the picture shown below is believed that of shri Ramas foot mark.

MAHADESHWAR TEMPLE AT ITAGI IN YELBURGA BLOCK ANEGUNDI PALACE IN GANGAVATI BLOCK

KOTILINGA TEMPLE AT PURA IN KUSTAGI BLOCK MALEMALLESHWARA TEMPLE IN KOPPAL

ANEGUNDI PALACE. IN GANGAVATI BLOCK KOPPAL FORT IN KOPPAL BLOCK KOPPAL

ANEGUNDI FORT IN GANGAVATI BLOCK

1.2 GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

Koppal district is situated in northern part of Karnataka State. Koppal district has four revenue blocks namely, Koppal, Gangavathi, Kushtagi, and Yelburga. The district head quarter is at Koppal and almost all district offices are exists in Koppal city. The geographical area of district is 5559 sq meters and the district finds its position between 15°17’ to 16°10’ North latitudes, 75°45’ to 76°45’ East longitudes. Koppal district has 636 villages. The North-East of the district is surrounded by Raichur District, East by Gadag district, south is Bellary district and South East is Bagalkot district. The river Tungabhadhra flows along the border of Koppal and Gangavathi taluk as the district is arid zone area and is surrounded by hills belonging to Yamini Mountain series. Soil in Koppal district is mainly of moderate, fertility in nature. Major industry in Koppal district is Cotton textiles. Koppal district is bountifully blessed with plenty of mineral resources and it is considered to be a prosperous district. Iron ores are found in old mines in Kustagi taluka, but the Iron available here contains only 20-40% of Iron. The Quartz quary that is traced near Tavarageri in Kustagi taluk is found to be good in preparation of ‘Ferro-Silicon’. Quartz is also found near Alla nagar in Koppal taluka. Quartz is available in plenty that is mainly used in the manufacture of glass. Franchsite and Quartzite of very good quality, which is used for Mosaic tiles, is available in Bailakampur in Gangavathi taluka. Red Granite is found near Huligere, and Purtagere in Kustagi taluka. Granite of superior quality is available in and around Kukanoor in Yelburga taluka. Madinoor in Koppal taluka and Koodlur in Kustagi are known for soap stone which is used as filler in the manufacture of pestisides.

1.3 SOCIO- ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

The social setup in Koppal district is mainly of traditional style. There are people practicing different religions like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism and Buddhism. The main feature of the social climate of the district is optimized with religious tolerance and social harmony and peaceful co-existence. Quite natural to the backwardness, Koppal district has the woman population that is still in the grip of illiteracy, blind beliefs, evil practices like Devadasi & Child marriage. These social and economical factors certainly contribute to lack of demand for education in the district. Major occupation of the district is Agriculture and Major crops are Sugarcane, cotton, Rice and cereals.

Table 1.1 District Socio Ecnomic Scenarios

Area in Sq. Km

Density sq.km

No. of Talukas

No of village Panchayats

No. of villages

Total cultivated land (in hectares)

Total irrigated land (in hectares)

No. of Revenue Divisions

No. of Hoblis

5579

171

4

137

636

358194

85200

4

20

Source : DC Office

1.4 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE (Blocks, Gramm Panchyats)

Koppal District is a handy district having four revenue taluk as well as educational Blocks Viz. Koppal, Gangavati, Kustagi and Yelburga. According to Panchayath Raj Act three tire system of administration is actively working at present. Zillah Penchant, Taluka Panchayath and Grama Panchayath are working in co-Ordination with each other. The number of members in each area are given in the below table.

Table 1.2 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE

Block

ZP Member

TP Member

No of GPs

No of GPMs

Gangavati

8

32

39

792

Koppal

7

26

36

660

Kustagi

6

23

29

599

Yelburga

6

23

33

571

Total

27

104

137

2622

Source : DC Office

1.5 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE (Disaggregated data by Gender and Social Group)

The population of the district has been predominantly scattered over the rural belt. Though the villages have been densely populated the district as a whole has been populated sparsely. The vast majority of the people of the district hail from the rural sector and the rural and the traditional character of the population has been the hallmark of the whole district. There has been a considerable growth in the population over the years. Table below presents the population position of the district.

Table –1.3 population position of district

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

1991 Census

District

4,83,701

4,74,377

9,58,078

State

22,951,917

22,025,284

44,977,201

2001 Census

District

6,03,312

5,92,777

11,96,089

State

26898918

25951644

52850562

Source: Census-2001

Table –1.4 Population block wise

Block

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

Gangavathi

204356

201978

406334

Koppal

159071

154980

314051

Kustagi

120621

118710

239331

Yelburga

119264

117109

236373

TOTAL

603312

592777

1196089

Source : Census-2001

The above table shows Gangavathi has got highest population. Out of 1196089 total population, male population is 603312 and that of female is 592777.

Table 1.5 : Taluka wise Rural/Urban total population as per 2001 census

Taluk

Area

Total Population

Male

Female

Gangavati

Rural

304942

153145

151797

Urban

101392

51211

50181

Total

406334

204356

201978

Koppal

Rural

249776

126261

123515

Urban

64275

32810

31465

Total

314051

159071

154980

Kustagi

Rural

218148

109855

108293

Urban

21183

10766

10417

Total

239331

120621

118710

Yelburga

Rural

224931

113471

111460

Urban

11442

5793

5649

Total

236373

119264

117109

Grand Total

Rural

997797

502732

495065

Urban

198292

100580

97712

Total

1196089

603312

592777

Source :Census 2001 census.

· The size of Male Population is more in both Urban and Rural areas.

· The size of Male Population in Rural areas is [42.03%] and that of Female Population in Rural Areas is [41.39%].

· The size of Male Population in Urban areas is [8.40%] and that of Female Population in Urbon Areas is [8.16%].

Table 1.6 : SC/ST Population [Male and Female] :

Block

Total Population (2001)

SC Population (2001)

ST Population (2001)

Total SC

% of SC population to total Population

Male

Female

Total ST

% of ST population to total Population

Male

Female

Gangavati

406334

66711

6.09

33148

33563

55996

7.26

28021

27975

Koppal

314051

51676

6.08

25920

25756

26242

11.97

13410

12832

Kustagi

239331

32078

7.46

16155

15923

31514

7.59

15999

15515

Yelburga

236373

34744

6.80

17513

17231

24836

9.52

12633

12203

Total

1196089

185209

6.61

92736

92473

138588

9.08

70063

68525

** Source Census 2001

On an average SC population is about 6.61% and ST population is 9.08% in this district.

1.6 LITERACY SCENARIO (Disaggregated data by Gender and Social Group)

Literacy rate is an index of the development of education. The literacy rate and levels of educational attainment of the population refers to the number of children studying in various courses and associated indicators.

Koppal district has the lowest literacy rate. The literacy rate of the District as per 1991 census is 35.96%. However this was far below the literacy rate of the whole state of Karnataka which was 56.04%.

With this poor background relentless efforts were made to introspect for the low literacy rate and ever since then developmental Programmes were initiated with all seriousness and earnestness towards the up-liftment in the field of education. One such programme was the DPEP, which was successfully launched and was pursued to the benefit of the children. Since the inception of the DPEP in 1994 -1995 in the district, the rate of literacy is showing upward trend and is yielding positive results. The literacy rate of the district as per 2001 census is 55.02%, Once again one has to bear in mind that the overall literacy rate of the state is remarkably higher i.e. 67.04%.

Table –1. 7 Literacy rate

District

Year

All (%)

SC (%)

ST(%)

Male

Female

Total

Gender Gap

Male

Female

Total

Gender Gap

Male

Female

Total

Gender Gap

Koppal

1991

49.53

22.15

35.96

27.38

31.87

10.61

21.24

21.26

27.95

6.47

17.21

21.48

Koppal

2001

69.15

40.76

55.02

28.39

40.12

35.68

37.90

4.44

42.93

18.26

30.59

24.67

Source: General Census2001

In our district male literacy rate is higher than female. ST female literacy rate is very less. In general literacy rate is increasing considerably.

Table –1.8 Literacy rate - block wise

Block

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

Female Sex Ratio

Gangavathi

71.94

44.76

58.53

988

Koppal

67.26

40.78

53.93

974

Kustagi

68.06

36.97

51.56

984

Yelburga

69.72

41.18

55.06

982

TOTAL

69.15

40.76

55.02

983

Source: General Census2001

The above table shows block literacy rate that is 55.02%. Male literary rate is higher than female literacy rate in all 4 blocks. The overall sex ratio is 983. Among 4 blocks koppal is having lowest sex ratio, which is 974.