YADGIR DISTRICT PROFILE

INTRODUCTION AND DISTRICT BACKGROUND

Provision of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years is a constitutional Right. The recent efforts to make education a fundamental right reflect an increased national commitment to achieve the goal of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE).

There has been a demand from parents for attention to the education of their children. Simultaneous efforts were taken to focus on the universalisation of primary education. The district has made steady progress in achieving universalisation of elementary education, though the progress has been uneven in different blocks. Increasing enrolment, retention and achievement at the primary stage has in turn generated growing demand for upper primary education. Consequently, achievement of UEE depends now, along with continuing efforts at the primary stage, on a focus on the upper primary stage. The task that remains is to consolidate the gains and carry forward critical interventions in the context of achieving UEE.

Critical elements of a Plan to achieve Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE):

Yadagiri district also in the year 1997-98 under the Kalaburagi district, being one of the DPEP Phase-2 districts, requires planning for UEE according to a reliable and realistic time frame. The plan has been developed keeping the following three major components.

The first is the supply side interventions which comprise of conventional mechanisms already existing in the state, and include the opening of schools, provision of teachers, construction and maintenance of buildings, as well as the entire gamut of incentives provided to children in the form of food grains, textbooks, uniforms, etc., to enhance enrolment and attendance. On this side of the spectrum greater attention will have to be paid to provide alternate schooling.

The second major component would be those that can broadly come under interventions promoting ‘demand’ for schooling. These would principally comprise community-based interventions. This would include efforts at strengthening people’s groups (SDMCs), and using other media to enhance community awareness, such as kala jathas and chinnara melas. These two components require to be backed by adequate provisions in the budgets.

The third major component for successful planning for UEE could broadly be categorised under institutional support. This would principally necessitate a major initiative to reform the existing management structures. In specific terms this would mean a re-orientation of the education system to make it move away from a regulatory framework to one that focuses on programme support within a child centered approach. An efficient management structure will also require the successful implementation of an educational MIS, which takes advantage of technology and at the same time it is cost effective and sustainable.

Quality in education is the major concern in the field of education these days. However quality is an abstract concept and also a relative one. Transforming this abstract concept into a reality is a challenge before us. The above-discussed three components of education centers round Quality in education.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is perhaps the last effort by the Government of India to achieve its constitutional obligation of providing compulsory Elementary Education to all children of age group 6-14 years. It is a response to the demand for quality education. The main objectives of SSA are

· Universalisation of ‘ACCESS’ to elementary education from 1 to 8 standards to all children upto the age of 14 years, but in the year 2007.

· Universalisation of enrolments and retention in elementary education and completion of 8th standard by all children before the year 2010; universalisation means age-specific enrollment and full retention of all enrolled children.

· Provision of education of a satisfactory quality with emphasis on life skills and meaningful schooling.

· Complete attention to equity by sex and across social groups and parity across regions in educational development.

· Total involvement of communities’ up to the village level and especially local government institutions in management of schools and movement towards the goal of ‘Self-Managing schools’.

The mission promotes:

· Empowering of children to be active participants in a knowledge society.

· Result – oriented approach with accountability towards performance and out put at all levels.

· A people- center mode of implementation of educational interventions with involvement of all stakeholders, especially teachers, parents, community and panchayat Raj institutes and voluntary organizations.

· An equity – based approach that focuses on the needs of educationally backward areas and disadvantaged social groups including children with special needs.

· A holistic effort to ensure convergence of investments and initiatives for improving the efficiency of the elementary education system.

· Institutional reforms and capacity building to ensure a sustained effort for UEE.

Still a much more needs to be done to achieve UEE in the district. It is with this objective in view that the Annual work plan 2009-10 for Kalaburagi district is prepared.

DISTRICT PROFILE

a) Historical Background

Yadgir, popularly called as “Yadavagiri” by the local people, was once a capital of the Yadava Kingdom. Has a rich historical and cultural traditions. Yadavas, the earliest Muslim empire of South India chose Yadgir to be their capital and ruled from here from 1347 to 1425 A.D.

Mentioned as Yadgir in ancient inscriptions, Yadgir is popularly known as “Yadavagiri” by the locals. Yadgir district has its deep routs in history. The famous dynasties of the south, the Satavahans, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Rastrkuta, Shahis, the Aidil shahis, the Nizam Shahis have ruled over the district.

In 1504 Yadgir (Kalaburagi) was permanently annexed to Adil Shahi kingdom of Bijapur. In 1657 with the invasion of Mir Jumla it passed into the hands of Mughals. Later with the establishment of Asaf Jahi (Nizam) Dynasty of Hyderabad (1724 - 1948) Yadgir and Kalaburagi came under it. In 1863 when Nizam Government formed Jillabandi, Surpur (Shorapur) became district headquarter, with nine Talukas of which Kalaburagi was one of the them. In 1873 Kalaburagi was formed into Separate district with seven taluks. With reorganization of states in 1956 Kalaburagi became Part of Karnataka State and Divisional headquarter. (Yadgiri is one of the taluka comes under Kalaburagi district)

The Bahamani rulers built Kalaburagi city with Palaces, Mosques, Gumbazs, Bazaars and other public buildings. There are five score large and small Marques and three score and ten Darghas in Kalaburagi. The City is described as a “Garden of Gumbazs” So also number of Temples, churches and other religious centers are spread all over the city. (In Yadgir Yadava dynasty fort situated in middle of the hill.)

In side the fort the Jumma Masjid, a noteworthy monument of Kalaburagi is in well preserved condition. It is said that it resembles the famous mosque of ‘Cordova’ city in Spain. The Masjid measuring 216 ft. east-west and 176 ft north south covering an area of 38016 sqft. Happens to be the only mosque in India, which is completely covered. Fergusson observes this “as one of the most remarkable of its class in India in some respect unique.

Mailapur, Mailarlingeshwara Temple: A famous temple of Shri Mailapur Mailarlingeshwar in Yadgir Taluka. The temple attracts lakhs of devotees every year in “Makara Sankramana” from all over the State.

Yadgir district is the 2nd smallest district in the state, area wise is very rich in cultural traditions. The vast stretch of fertile black soil of the district is known for bumper red gram and jawar crops. The district is a “Daal bowl” of the state. The district is also known for cluster of cement industries and a distinct stone popularly know as “Malakheda Stone”.

Yadgir has been blessed by the incessant flowing of two main rivers Krishna and Bhima in addition to these two, a few tributaries flow in this region. The upper Krishna project and Shahapur Taluka in Bendebembali “Core Green Sugar Factory yet to started. Yadgir which is known for of industries is presently showing great deal of signs of growth in the cement, textile, leather, and chemical production in the industrial sector. One of the recent developments, where in the people of Yadgir are proud and boastful is that the establishment of Agriculture University in Bheemarayana Gudi (B.Gudi).

On 26th September 2008, The cabinet meeting were held at Kalaburagi. In the meeting decision was taken by the cabinet that Yadgir is a new district. Therefore the Chief Minster declares that as a new 30th district. The special officer has been appointed for Yadgir district. All the pre-activities is in progress for the formation of new districts. But so for, the gazette order has not been issued.

b) Geographical Features

Yadagir district occupies 6298 square kilometers area. It is the second smallest district in the state. In Geographical area which constitutes 8.46 percent area of the state. The district is having one revenue sub-divisions viz. Yadgir. There are 03 revenue blocks in the district namely Shahapur, Shorapur and Yadgir. There are 3 educational blocks in the district namely Shahapur, Shorapur and Yadgir. The district has got 19 hobalis, One City municipal, 3 Town Muncipal, 3 Taluk Panchayats, 117 Grama Panchayats, 4 Assembly constituencies. There are 603 villages, Zilla Panchayat, and one Parliamentary constituency in the district.

Table 1.1 Salient features

Geographical area

6298 Sq.Kms

Revenue Blocks

03

Educational Blocks

03

City Municipal

01

Hoblis

19

Town Municipal Corporation

03

Zilla Panchayat Members

22

Taluka Panchayats

03

Taluka Panchayat Members

118

Gram Panchayat

117

Gram Panchayat Members

2125

Revenue Villages

603

Number of Habitations

1209

Assembly Constituencies

04

Member of Legislative Council

00

Parliamentary Constituencies

00

Member of Parliament

00

No. of Assembly Constituency

Name of the Block

No. of the Assembly Constitutency

Shahapur

01- Shahapur

Shorapur

01 – Shorapur

Yadgir

02 (Yadgir & Gurumitkal)

Total

04 - Assembly Constitutency


No. of Parlimentry Constituency

Name of the Parlimentry Constituency

No. of Assembly Constituency

Raichur

Shahapur, Shorapur, Yadigr & Gurumitkal Assembly Constituency

b) Socio-Economic and Cultural Characteristics

It is predominantly an agricultural district divided into two agro climatic zones namely eastern transition and north eastern dry zone. The zones indicate the predominance of rain dependent dry land agricultural area. The normal rainfall of the district is 777 mms. The climate of Kalaburagi District is generally dry and healthy. The net sown area in the district is 85.1 per cent of the total cultivable land area, which is 13821.94 square kilometers.

The major crops grown in the district are jowar, red gram, sunflower and groundnut. In terms of productivity the yields of principal crops is lesser than the state average. The variation in rainfall and endemic pest attack has affected productivity of tur (red gram). The production and productivity of jowar has been improving because of better use of fertilizer and plant protection measures. In case of oil seeds the area and production has been decreased.

Irrigation

Agriculture in the district mainly depends upon the rainfall and the net area irrigated to net area sown is 14%, which is below the state average of 24%. Krishna, Bhima rivers flow in the district. The medium irrigation projects in the district are Hattikuni and Soudha ghar.. There are 36 lift irrigation schemes and 445 minor irrigation tanks in the district.

Shahapur and Shorapur both Taluka have been fully irrigation Yadagiri Taluka having 65% irrigated area.

Cattle, Poultry, Sheep, Goats and Buffaloes constitute the major livestock of the district. It is to be noted that poultry and goat-rearing activities will increase the burden of work for children.

Though 18.73 percent of men and 25.86 per cent of women are agricultural laborers, they do not have yearlong employment. There is also temporary migration of full families or male workers. The migration is more in Afzalpur, Chittapur, Shahapur, Shorapur and Yadgir blocks they are migrating in the month of November. In the former case children get enrolled to school but fail to attend thereafter when they move out of their villages with their parents for employment. In the latter case, females left behind by the males in the family hardly evince any interest in schooling of their children or participate in Gramsabha meetings, SDMC meetings etc,.

For migratory Children we are preparing the plan during the year 2009-10.

Forest:

Roads

Road is one of the basic means of transport which requires to be developed in the district. All indicators pertaining to road in the district are below the state average. Length of different categories of road in the district is as detailed below:

S.No

Particulars

(Kms)

1)

National Highways

0

2)

State Highways

347

3)

Major District roads

1510

4)

Village Roads

2805

5)

Panchayat Roads

1456

6)

Forest Roads

5

7)

Irrigation Roads

930

8)

Municipality Roads

57

9)

Other District Roads

63

Total

7623


Surfaced Road - 5389 Km

Major bridges - 45

Railway Length – 119 Km

Industries and Commerce

Yadagir District is a under developing in industrial area district has rich uranium

Small Scale industrial units

Employees

Number of Factories (2001)

Employees

Unemployed on live register (2002)

d) Administrative Structure (Blocks, Gram Panchayat)

It consists of one sub divisional administrative units, namely Yadgir. It consists of 03 taluks namely Shahapur, Shorapur and Yadgir. In Karnataka the blocks and taluks are equal. There are 603 revenue villages, 19 hoblies and 117 Gram Panchayats in the district.

Deputy Commissioner and Chief Executive Officer of Zillapanchayat (ZP) look after the district administration. The Zillapanchayat has an elected body represented by 22 ZP members, one of which will be chairman and one will be vice chairman. The ZP will have different sub committees like Health and Education, Agriculture, Social justice etc. Health and Education sub committee looks after the department of Education. Similarly at Taluk level Tahashildars and Taluk Panchayat Executive Officers (TPEO) looks after the administration of the block along with the elected body of taluk panchayat. In the district 117 Grama panchayats (GP) are established which look after the development of the villages comes under their jurisdiction. The GPs are also having an elected body headed by the chairman. The number of Grama panchayat members. in the district are 2125. The term of all the elected bodies i.e ZP, TP and GP is 5 years.

Election Profile

Seat's

Total elected Zillah Panchayat member's

22

Member of Parliament

1

Member's of Legislative Assembly

4

Member's of Legislative Council

1

Total Gram Panchayat's

117

Total Village's

603

Total Taluka Panchayat's

3

Total Taluka Panchayat Member's

118

Total Panchayat Member's

869

e) Demographic profile

As per 2001 Census the total population of the district is 31.25 lakhs which constitutes 5.93% of State population. The domestic decadal growth is 21.02% which is higher than the state average of 17.25%. 33.85 per cent of the families (ie.1,26,586) in the district are BPL families. The other important demographic indicators of the district are listed below:

Table 1.2

Block wise demographic Information

Census 2001

The population of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes in the district as per 2001 general Census is 7.18 lakhs and 1.54 lakhs.

Table No.1.3

Demographic details of the dist. Population (in lakhs)

Year 1991 2001

Male 13.16 15.93

Female 12.66 15.38

Total 25.82 31.31

Decadal Growth Rate 24.10 21.02

Density of Population 158 192

Sex Ratio 962 968

The district is sub-divided into one revenue sub-divisions viz., Yadgir. There are 1209 habitations, 603 revenue villages and 4 towns in the 3 taluks of the district.

Census of India 2001, the population of minority community information was not available in the Primary Census Abstract of Karnataka.

f) Literacy Scenario

The literacy rate of Kalaburagi district is increased by 12.11 in 2001. The male and female literacy have also increased by 10.44 and 13.91 respectively. Female literacy rate has registered more than that of male literacy during the decade. This is due to the DPEP and Other programmes which were concentrated to increase the female literacy in the district.

Table 1.4

Literacy performance

Block

1971

1981

1991

2001

Rank

Shahapur

12.65

16.91

29.14

38.80

9

Shorapur

15.65

21.24

32.74

43.40

8

Yadgir

14.00

18.36

25.88

37.20

10

DISTRICT

18.74

24.94

38.54

50.00

Source: Census of India

As per the Census data the literacy rate in 9 blocks is shown in the above table. Except Kalaburagi block were literacy rate is 66.50, which is above the National but below the State Level average (65.38 & 66.60) all other blocks have been considered as educationally backward blocks.

IMPORTANT TOURIST PLACES AND RELIGIOUS CENTRES :

Shahapur:-

Syed Chanda Husain : The famous durga of syed chanda hussain durga was famous durga in shahapur taluka. It is attrackts lakhs together devotees in the urus.

Sofi Sarmast durga: The famous sofi sarmast durga is in Shahapur taluka village called sagar. The durga attracts thousands of people in the urus of sofi sarmast.

Sleeping Budha : On the way from Kalaburagi to Bangalore near by Shahapur at the right side the self manifested hill seems to give an image of the lord Budha as he were in the sleeping posture across the hill. Hence it is said to be identified as sleeping Budha on the hills of Shahapur. It even draw the attention of many staunch devotees of Budhism across the world.

Bheemarayan Gudi (B.Gudi):- A famous temple of Bhalabhima sena . In SHAHAPUR Taluk. The temple attractions Laksh together devotees every year in Sankramana In January.

Shorapur :

The Nayaks of Shorapur, who ruled with Shorapur as headquarter from 1639 to 1857 have left an indelible mark on the history of the region. The last ruler of Shorapur Principality Raja Venkatappa Nayak fought against British to avoid their inference in the internal affairs of his principality. The Nayaks of Shorapur built Shorapur city with two palaces and earlier to these, a fort was in Vaginagera, which was ruined by the attack of Moghal Empire Aurangajeb. Col Philip Meadows Taylor, a British Political agent who was commissioned to look after the Shorapur Principality, Constructed a circuit house called ‘Taylor’s Manjil’ during his sojourn in Shorapur on the hill top, which is now a center of attraction.

Historic Settlements have been discovered in Rajan Kolur in Shorapur, Vibhutihalli in Shahapur and on the bank of Bhima river in Yadagir

Tinthani Mouneshwar Temple :- The famous temple of Mouneshwar in Shorapur Taluka the temple attraction lakhs together devotees ever year in

Yadagiri:-

Abbetumakur: - A famous temple of Vishwaradhya in Yadgri taluk. The temple attractions Lakhs together devotees every year in Shivarathri in February-March.

Ecological :

THE FORT OF VANADURGA:-

This fort which is 24 km distant from Shahapur has a dense forest around it. As it has been covered by the forest, it got the name ‘Vanadurga’ [The fort of the forest]. Both sides of the entrance gate have a Sanskrit inscription of five lines in Devanagari script. This fort was tributed by Piddanayaka, the king of Surpur to his beloved queen Venkammamba. Though this fort has huge entrance gates, it also has half moon shaped walls which made the enemies got puzzled. Inside the fort the remains of the rooms of the guards and of the officers can be seen.

THE SHIRAVAL VILLAGE:-

This village which was called by various names as ‘Srivolalu’, ‘Sirivolalu’, ‘Dakshina Kashi’, ‘Dharmadha Mane’, ‘Adi Pattana’ in ancient inscriptions which belonged to Sagara Nadu. This village was as old as the Shathavahana dynasty. The inscriptions of Shiravala and the surrounding villages state that, this village had the temples of the Kadambeshwara, the Eraheshwara, the Chatteshwara, the Shanthishwara, the Mahadeva and so on. But now these temples cannot be identified exactly. Today there are approximately twenty temples in the village. Among them, the temple complex of Nagaiah and Nannaih is the oldest. At the sanctum are the statues of the Shivalinga, where three branched design at the doors with the Goddess Gaja Laxmi at the centre is found. The large pillars of the Navaranga are more attractive. The ventilator with the beautiful design of Shivathandava is natable. Beside the shivalinga, there is a four and half feet talled statue of eight armed Harihara. Harihara has a Thrishula and an arrow in his right hands and a wheel, a conch, a bow and a mace in his left hands which made the statue different.

Socio-Economic and Cultural Characteristics:

It is predominantly an agricultural district divided into two agro climatic zones namely eastern transition and north eastern dry zone. The zones indicate the predominance of rain dependent dry land agricultural area. The normal rainfall of the district is 777 mms.

The major crops grown in the district are Jawer, red gram, sunflower, cotton and groundnut. In terms of productivity the yields of principal crops is lesser than the state average. The variation in rainfall and endemic pest attack has affected productivity of tur (red gram). The production and productivity of Jawer has been improving because of better use of fertilizer and plant protection measures. In case of oil seeds the area and production has been decreased.

NARAYANPUR DAM

In the year 1962 then the prim minister Sree Lal Bhaddur Shastri laid foundation stone for Narayanpur Dam.

And its blue print was drawn or designed by the Balakundre.

It has right and left cannels and it has provides irrigation facilities for 106.000 hectors land.

THINTHINI MOUNESHWAR TEMPLE :-

It is shrine it is located 20km distance south to Shorapur it previously it was a Agrahar (Education Center) during the period of Vikramiditya 6th and it was an ancient temple called as a Dakshina Kashi it attracts both Hindu and Muslim devotees.

CHAYA BHAGAVATI TEMPLE

It is shrine it is located 20km distance south to Shorapur it previously it was a Agrahar (Education Center) during the period of Vikramiditya 6th and it was an ancient temple called as a Dakshina Kashi it attracts both Hindu and Muslim devotees.

KODEKAL BASAVANNA

Village Kodekal Comes in Shorapur Taluka in Yadagir Dist. Kodekal Basawanna is well known as a saint of truth. He wrote Kala Gnana it means future happening things, the place of Pyati Gudi where he wrote the Kala Gnana.